International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-1)

Film & Audio | Newsletters | Methods | Reprints | Cruise Reports | Papers of Robert G. Snider | References

The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) resulted from a cascade of effects. The International Geophysical Year of 1957-1958 had shown the value of coordinated multinational efforts in ocean science. This realization resulted in the International Council of Scientific Unions (now the International Council for Science) creating the Special Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR, later re-named to Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research) to continue to stimulate international cooperation in ocean sciences.  From its first annual meeting at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 1957, SCOR identified the Indian Ocean as the greatest unknown in the global ocean and an area that could benefit from an intensive campaign of ocean observations. SCOR envisioned exploration of the Indian Ocean as its first task. The first four SCOR working groups were established to work on methodological issues to prepare for the IIOE, then were combined into SCOR WG 5.  SCOR hired a Coordinator for the IIOE, Robert G. Snider, in 1959, and he continued in this post until the end of 1962, when management of the expedition was transferred to the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

Film and Audio Files about the International Indian Ocean Expedition

Several films were made about the International Indian Ocean Expedition. The one that is available online is about the R.V. Anton Bruun and its role in the U.S. Program in Biology, which was primarily carried out using the Bruun.

Audio recordings

Some oral history files are available in audio form, relating the experiences of the following individuals during IIOE:

National Newsletters from the International Indian Ocean Expedition

The following are national IIOE newsletters that are available in electronic format.

Country Program Month/Year Volume/Number
India June 1963 Volume 1, Issue 1
India Sept. 1963 Volume 1, Issue 2
India Dec. 1963 Volume 1, Issue 3
India March 1964 Volume 1, Issue 4
India June 1964 Volume 2, Issue 1
India Sept. 1964 Volume 2, Issue 2
India Dec. 1964 Volume 2, Issue 3
India March 1965 Volume 2, Issue 4
India June 1965 Volume 3, Issue 1
India Sept. 1965 Volume 3, Issue 2
India Dec. 1965 Volume 3, Issue 3
India March 1966 Volume 3, Issue 4
India June 1966 Volume 4, Issue 1
India Sept. 1966 Volume 4, Issue 2, Part 1
India Sept. 1966 Volume 4, Issue 2, Part 2
India Dec. 1966 Volume 4, Issue 3
India March 1967 Volume 4, Issue 4
Japan August 1962 Number 1
Japan Nov. 1962 Number 2
Japan March 1963 Number 3
Japan Dec. 1963 Number 4
United States U.S. Program in Biology Jan. 1963 No. 1

News Bulletin for Participants

United States U.S. Program in Biology July 1963 No. 2

News Bulletin. Narrative Report. Anton Bruun Cruise 1

United States U.S. Program in Biology Jan. 1964 No. 3

News Bulletin. Narrative Report. Anton Bruun Cruise 2

United States U.S. Program in Biology Feb. 1964 No. 4

News Bulletin. Narrative Report. Anton Bruun Cruise 3

United States U.S. Program in Biology Mar. 1964 No. 5

News Bulletin. Narrative Report. Anton Bruun Cruise 4A

United States U.S. Program in Biology Apr. 1964 No. 6

News Bulletin. Narrative Report. Anton Bruun Cruise 4B

United States U.S. Program in Biology Oct. 1964 No. 7

News Bulletin. Narrative Report. Anton Bruun Cruise 5

United States U.S. Program in Biology  Dec. 1964 No. 8

News Bulletin. Narrative Report. Anton Bruun Cruise 6

United States U.S. Program in Biology Jan. 1965 No. 9

News Bulletin. Narrative Report. Anton Bruun Cruise 7

United States U.S. Program in Biology Feb. 1965 No. 10

News Bulletin. Narrative Report. Anton Bruun Cruise 8

United States Indian Ocean Bubble No. 1
United States Indian Ocean Bubble No. 2
United States Indian Ocean Bubble No. 3
United States Indian Ocean Bubble No. 4
United States Indian Ocean Bubble No. 5

Intercalibrations and Standardized Methods

Several intercalibration exercises were conducted to improve the ability to compare the results from different cruises.  The first intercalibrations, on nutrient chemistry and primary production, were held in Hawaii starting on 3 September 1961.  Dr. B.H. Ketchum (Woods Hole) led the nutrient intercalibration exercise and Prof. M.S. Doty (Univ. of Hawaii) led the primary production intercalibration. Other participants are shown on this circular.

Indian Ocean Standard Net:

  • Barnes, H., and D.J. Tranter. 1965. A statistical examination of the catches, numbers, and biomass taken by three commonly used plankton nets. Aust. J. mar. Freshw. Res. 16:293-306.
  • Currie, R.I. 1963. The Indian Ocean Standard Net. Deep-Sea Research 10:27-32.
  • Tranter, D.J. 1963. A comparison of zooplankton biomass determinations by Indian Ocean standard net, Juday net, and Clarke-Bumpus sampler. Nature 198:1179-1180.

Phytoplankton Methods Intercalibrations:

Intercalibration Exercises:

Zooplankton Nets: August 1962 at SCOR-UNESCO Reference Station #1 (32°S, 111°50’E) aboard the Vitiaz.

Plankton Primary Productivity Techniques: 3-7 August 1962 off Fremantle, Western Australia aboard the Vitiaz.

Reports on Standardization and Intercalibration of Oceanographic Techniques and Methods. UNESCO/NS/9/89 J, 31 December 1963

Subgroups Contributing to the International Indian Ocean Expedition

Work related to the IIOE was conducted by several different groups devoted to different topics and activities, including the following

Meteorology

The IIOE had a substantial program of meteorology, supported by ships and aircraft.  One of the activities in meteorology was the establishment of an International Meteorology Centre in Bombay.  This was funded by the UN Special Fund. The draft proposal to the UN Special Fund and some draft correspondence related to the proposal can be found here. Prof. C.S. Ramage (Univ. of Hawaii) was appointed to coordinate the meteorological aspects of the project. Ramage convened a meeting of meteorologists in Bombay on 18-20 July 1961.

Biology

The biological program had several different elements.  At the core was wide-scale sampling with the Indian Ocean Standard Net, developed for the expedition.  This net was used to take vertical samples in a specified way, to provide a standard sampling protocol that could be compared basin-wide. Biological samples of all types were eventually sent to a Biology Center that was developed in Cochin, India.  Another component of the biological investigations was a set of two land-based research camps, at Mandapam Camp, India and Nose Be, Madagascar. The United States funded a major biology program as part of IIOE.

A meeting was held in Cochin and Delhi on 14-17 August 1961 to discuss the sampling program for zooplankton and the proposal for a biological center (see agenda). A proposal for the center resulted from the meeting.

Reprints from the International Indian Ocean Expedition

UNESCO re-reprinted scientific papers that resulted from the IIOE, in an 8-volume set, available through the following links. Many thanks are due to IOC staff who scanned and collated these volumes.

An Excel spreadsheet of the reprints is available here. There are 659 reprints listed in this collection, although 3 are duplicates, so the actual number of unique reprints of abstracts is 656:

  • Numbers 104 and 400 are identical
  • Numbers 118 and 613 are identical
  • Numbers 240 and 334 are identical

Cruise Reports from the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE)

The following are cruise reports that are available in electronic format.  All cruise reports made available to the SCOR Secretariat will be linked here.

Country Ship Year Cruise

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1959 Dm 2/59

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1960 Dm 1/60

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1960 Dm 2/60

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1960 Dm 3/60

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1961 Dm 1/61

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1961 Dm 2/61

Australia

HMAS Gascoyne 1961 G2/61

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1961 Dm 3/61

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1962 Dm 1/62

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1962 Dm 2/62

Australia

HMAS Gascoyne 1962 G2 and G3/62

Australia

HMAS Gascoyne 1962 G4/62

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1962 Dm 3/62

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1962 Dm 4/62

Australia

HMAS Gascoyne 1963 G1/63

Australia

HMAS Gascoyne 1963 G2/63

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1963 Dm 1/63

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1963 Dm 2/63

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1963 Dm 3/63

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1963 Dm 4/63

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1963 Dm 5/63

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1963 Dm 6/63

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1964 Dm 1/64

Australia

HMAS Gascoyne 1964 G2/64

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1964 Dm 2/64

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1964 Dm 3/64

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1964 Dm 4/64

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1964 Dm 5/64

Australia

HMAS Gascoyne 1964 G5/64

Australia

HMAS Gascoyne 1965 G2/65

Australia

HMAS Gascoyne 1965 G5/65

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1965 Dm 1/65

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1965 Dm 2/65

Australia

HMAS Diamantina 1965 Dm 3/65
Japan Umitaka-Maru

 

Koyo-Maru

 

Kagoshima-Maru

Oshoro-Maru

1962-1963

1963-1964

1962-1963

1963-1964

1963-1964

1963-1964

Records of the Oceanographic Works of Japan
South Africa Africana II 1961-1963 Primary Production Studies in the South-west Indian Ocean: 1961-1963
United Kingdom HMS Owen 1961-1962 Indian Ocean Survey Programme
United Kingdom RRS Discovery 1963 Cruise 1
United Kingdom RRS Discovery 1963 Cruise 2
United Kingdom RRS Discovery 1964 Cruise 3
United States R/V Argo and Horizon 1960-1963 Lusiad and Monsoon
United States R/V Argo 1964 Dodo
United States R/V Atlantis II 1963 Cruise 8: Preliminary Cruise Report

Bird Log Data

United States R/V Atlantis II 1965 Cruise 15: Experimental VLF Relative NavigationData on the distribution of stable isotopes and amino acids in Indian Ocean sediments
United States R/V Anton Bruun 1963 Cruise A

Equipment and Supplies Appendix

United States R/V Anton Bruun 1963 Cruise 1: Volume 1 and Volume 2
United States R/V Anton Bruun 1963 Cruise 2
United States R/V Anton Bruun 1963 Cruise 3
United States R/V Anton Bruun 1963 Cruises 4A and 4B
United States R/V Anton Bruun 1963 Cruise 5
United States R/V Anton Bruun 1964 Cruise 6
United States R/V Anton Bruun 1964 Cruises 7-9: Volume 1 and Volume 2
United States USS Chain 1964 Cruise 43: Cruise PlansTrack Charts, Bathymetry, and Location of ObservationsNarrative of Cruise
United States C&GS Ship Pioneer 1964 Shipboard Journals of Dr. Harris B. Stewart
United States Te Vega 1963 Cruise 2
United States Te Vega 1964 Cruise 3
United States Te Vega 1964 Cruise 4
United States Te Vega 1964 Cruise 5

Bradbury et al. (1971)

Pearse et al. (2016)

United States Aircraft Mission 1964 Turbulence and Turbulent Fluxes Over the Indian Ocean
USSR R/V Vityaz Cruise 31 (in Russian)
USSR R/V Vityaz Cruise 33 (in Russian)
USSR R/V Vityaz Cruise 35 (in Russian)
USSR R/V Vityaz Cruise 36 (in Russian)
Multiple Nations Commandant Robert Girard, Atlantis II, Almirante Lacerda 1960-1965 Information on Oceanographic Cruise in the 

Papers of Robert G. Snider from the International Indian Ocean Expedition

1959

1960

1960 was a busy year for Robert G. Snider. He made his first trip to the Indian Ocean region in February and March (31 January to 25 March), as well as visits to countries outside the region who were likely participants in the IIOE. Snider’s itinerary was as follows:

  • Japan (3-6 February)
  • Singapore (7-8 February)
  • Indonesia (9-10 February)
  • Ceylon (Sri Lanka) (12-16 February)
  • India (16-22 February and 25 February-2 March)
  • Pakistan (22-24 February)
  • USSR (2-6 March)
  • West Germany (7-8 March)
  • United Kingdom (8-16 March)
  • The Netherlands (16-17 March)
  • Switzerland (17 March)
  • Portugal (17-19 March)
  • France (19-25 March)

The trip notes presented here were obtained from the archives of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences.

For each country visited, Snider made a detailed list of individuals with whom he visited: List of Contacts Made During January-March trip. In each country visited in the region, Snider had a standard procedure.  He had pre-arranged to meet with heads of the relevant government agencies, national SCOR committees, the U.S. Embassy in the country, and representatives of national and international charitable foundations. He made sure that all his key contacts had a copy of the Prospectus for the IIOE.  Snider emphasized a basic set of requests.  He asked that the country set up new tide and wave gauges.

1961

Snider revisited Southeast Asia and South Asia in early 1961.  He arrived in Sydney, Australia on 29 January.  This trip involved visits to Australia, Indonesia, Malaya, and Ceylon. The trip report may be incomplete…

1962

General References to the International Indian Ocean Expedition

Publications