Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms

Chair: Donald Anderson (USA)

Other Full Members: Allan Cembella (Canada), John Cullen (Canada), Malte Elbraechter (Germany), Marta Estrada (Spain), Yasuwo Fukuyo (Japan), Edna Graneli (Sweden), G. Hallegraeff (Australia), S. Maestrini (France), E. Paasche (Norway), Yu-Sao Qi (China-Beijing), Theodore J. Smayda (USA), and F.J.R. Taylor (Canada)

Associate Members: S. Bates (Canada), H, Chang (New Zealand), Grant Pitcher (South Africa), and W. Gieskes (Netherlands)

Terms of Reference

  • To review and analyze data on the physiological ecology and biochemical aspects of harmful algal blooms, especially those resulting in toxic episodes and paying particular attention to nutritional, environmental and physiological factors.
  • To assemble within two years the Working Group's findings and submit for publication a report, summarizing the state of knowledge and identifying the areas of future research.

Approved: 1992

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF, IOC


  • Anderson, D.M., A.D. Cembella, and Gustaaf Hallegraeff (eds.). 1998. Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms. NATO ASI Series. Series G: Ecological Sciences, Volume 41. Springer-Verlag.